The best scientific legacy that Albert Einstein left us is that this: that the velocity of sunshine, and the legal guidelines of physics, look like the identical for all observers within the Universe. No matter the place you are positioned, how briskly or through which path you are shifting, or once you’re performing your measurements, everybody experiences the identical elementary guidelines of nature.
Nonetheless, many concepts that transcend the Standard Model and General Relativity — comparable to string principle or most manifestations of quantum gravity — might break this symmetry, with penalties for what we would observe concerning the Universe. Though these two theories describe actuality completely, they are not full: they don’t describe, for instance, how gravity behaves at a quantum degree.
The hope amongst physicists — what some would name its final dream or “holy grail” — is that there exists a quantum idea of gravity and that this idea, after we discover it, will unify all the Universe’s forces collectively below one single framework. However, many of those proposed quantum gravity frameworks, together with string principle, can break that fundamental symmetry that is necessary to each the Standard Model and General Relativity: Lorentz invariance.
Lorentz invariance is a kind of physics phrase that has a jargon-rich identity, however, a quite simple which means: the legal guidelines of nature are identical no matter the place or once you measure them. It does not matter in case you’re right here or a billion light-years away; it does not matter if you happen to’re making your measurements now or billions of years in the past or billions of years sooner or later; it would not matter if you happen to’re at relaxation or transferring near the velocity of sunshine. In case your legal guidelines do not care about your place or movement, your principle is Lorentz invariant.